What are the 5 components of information systems technology?
The 5 components that must come together in order to produce a Computer-Based Information System (CBIS) are:
1. Hardware: Hardware is the computer components that are physical, touchable pieces or equipment. The term hardware refers to machinery. It consists of the system unit, input-output, secondary storages and communication devices. This category includes the computer itself, which is often referred to as the central processing unit (CPU), and all of its support equipments. Among the support equipments are input and output devices, storage devices and communications devices. There are four types of computers, supercomputer (the most powerful type of computer), mainframe (occupy specially wired, air-conditioned rooms), minicomputer (desk-sized machines used for specific purposes) and microcomputer (include the desktop, notebook and personal digital assistant or PDA)
2. Software: Computer software is the term for programmes or sets of computer instructions. The term software refers to computer programs and the manuals (if any) that support them. Computer programs are machine-readable instructions that direct the circuitry within the hardware parts of the CBIS to function in ways that produce useful information from data. Programs are generally stored on some input / output medium, often a disk or tape. It consists of step-by-step instructions, which the computer can use to convert data into information. It must be written in special computer language that enables a computer to accomplish a given task.
3. Data: Data is facts that are used by programs to produce useful information. In another words, data are raw and unprocessed facts including texts, numbers, images and sounds. Like programs, data are generally stored in machine-readable form on disk or tape until the computer needs them. Data describes something that is stored electrically in a file, such as document files created by word processors, worksheet files created by spreadsheets, database file created by database management programmes and presentation files created by presentation graphics programmes.
4. Procedures: This is must be referred to the rules or guidelines people follow when using software, hardware and data. Procedures are the policies that govern the operation of a computer system. “Procedures are to people what software is to hardware” is a common analogy that is used to illustrate the role of procedures in a CBIS. The procedures must be documented in manual written by computer specialists, as they provided by software or hardware manufacturers of the products.
5. People: This is the most important part as they make end-users more productive. Every CBIS needs people if it is to be useful. Often the most over-looked element of the CBIS are the people, probably the component that most influence the success or failure of information systems.
But in information technology, it can be broken into components or parts to facilitate research in this field. These components are Technology, Organization and Consumers. Apart from that there are interpretations in which the main component is a computer information technology (software, information, and procedures, human), communication networks and know-you-go (know-how). It can be described as follows: